Supplemental Material for Noshay et al., 2020
Transposable elements (TEs) have the potential to create regulatory variation both through disruption of existing DNA regulatory elements and through creation of novel DNA regulatory elements. In a species with a large genome, such as maize, the many TEs interspersed with genes creates opportunities for significant allelic variation due to TE presence/absence polymorphisms among individuals. We used information on putative regulatory elements in combination with knowledge about TE polymorphisms in maize to identify TE insertions that interrupt existing accessible chromatin regions (ACRs) in B73 as well as examples of polymorphic TEs that contain ACRs among four inbred lines of maize including B73, Mo17, W22, and PH207. The TE insertions in three other assembled maize genomes (Mo17, W22 or PH207) that interrupt ACRs that are present in the B73 genome can trigger changes to the chromatin suggesting the potential for both genetic and epigenetic influences of these insertions. Nearly 20% of the ACRs located over 2kb from the nearest gene are located within an annotated TE. These are regions of unmethylated DNA that show evidence for functional importance similar to ACRs that are not present within TEs. Using a large panel of maize genotypes we tested if there is an association between the presence of TE insertions that interrupt, or carry, an ACR and the expression of nearby genes. While most TE polymorphisms are not associated with expression for nearby genes the TEs that carry ACRs exhibit an enrichment for being associated with higher expression of nearby genes, suggesting that these TEs may contribute novel regulatory elements. These analyses highlight the potential for a subset of TEs to rewire transcriptional responses in eukaryotic genomes.